“Film and the Soul (Anima) of Modern Culture.”
by Murray Stein (IAAP, MP, ISAP Zurich)
What is “soul”? It is the link to the collective unconscious and to the self. The anima directs us to images that imply meaning. Film projects our collective life and its dilemmas and conflicts, but it also reaches beyond this level to the deeper archetypal meaning of culture as we experience it in our time. This lecture will seek to contribute a dimension of meaning to film from the perspective of depth psychology. Jung’s theory can help us to interpret the more subtle and culturally significant meanings in film.
Murray Stein, Ph.D. is a Training and Supervising Analyst at the International School of Analytical Psychology Zurich (ISAP-ZURICH). He was president of the International Association for Analytical Psychology (IAAP) from 2001 to 2004 and President of ISAP-ZURICH from 2008 to 2012. He is currently President of the Mercurius Prize Committee, which recognizes films of psychological significance. He has lectured internationally and is the author of Jung’s Treatment of Christianity, In MidLife, Jung’s Map of the Soul, Minding the Self, Outside Inside and All Around and most recently The Bible as Dream. He lives in Switzerland and has a private practice in Zurich.
"En route: From Active Imagination to Film Language"
Lecture and Video by Chiara Tozzi (IAAP, AIPA, MP, Rome)
The aim of my lecture “En Route: from Active Imagination to Film Language” is to share with my Jungian colleagues my research, through the examination and the comparison between the key points of the method formulated by Carl Gustav Jung to establish a dialogue with the unconscious – well known as Active Imagination– and the language of movies, which each screenwriter must master in order to write a script.
To give a representative demonstration of this lecture I have created a video in which, just like in dreams and in active imagination, “it is the Unconscious to have the floor”. In this video, which I have called “En Route”(15’), I have represented in the language of movies several key concepts of C.G. Jung’s essay: “Symbols and interpretation of dreams” (1961), with images and symbolic sequences from movies by Federico Fellini, Stanley Kubrick, Ettore Scola, Ingmar Bergman, Alfred Hitchcock, Giuseppe Tornatore and many others. Just like in the “vision of a dream” the spectators will have the chance of perceiving at the same time two communicative forms which are apparently very different but whose narrative conjunction can be translated in that both mysterious and meaningful language which is typical of symbolic communication.
Chiara Tozzi. Psychologist, Writer, Screenwriter, and Screenwriting Professor, is a Jungian analyst and psychotherapist in private practice in Rome. She is training analyst and supervisor AIPA (Associazione Italiana Psicologia Analitica) and IAAP (International Association for Analytical Psychology). Since February 2018 she is collaborating with the EC in AIPA as Contact Person with IAAP for international cultural exchanges and events organisation.
She is an author of novels, stories and scripts for film, theatre, TV, and radio. As professor of Screenwriting and Psychology, she has taught classes at the Universities of Rome and Florence, the Scuola Nazionale di Cinema (National Film School) in Rome, the Scuola Holden in Turin, AIPA, and other schools and academies in Italy. She lectures internationally. She is actively engaged in teaching and lecturing in many Developing Groups of the IAAP around the world. She has been editor of “Studi Junghiani”, the journal for AIPA. She is Artistic Director of “Mercurius Prize for Films of particular Psychological Significance and Sensitivity to Human Rights ”. She was President of the Association “Imaghia- Psychological Counselling for Cinema and TV Moovies” and President of the “Imaghia Prize for films good for you”.
"The Load of Trauma"
(The Load/Teret, Ognjen Glavonic, 2018)
by Prof. Nevena Dakovic, PhD (FDA)
(Faculty of Dramatic Arts/dept. of Theory and History, University of Arts Belgrade, Serbia)
The aim of this paper is to map out the manifold narrativisations and representations of trauma in the film The Load (Teret, Ognjen Glavonic, 2018). The film researches the story hidden behind the discovery of the mass grave on the outskirts of Belgrade while the cinematic forensic take us back to 1999 NATO bombing of Serbia and the crimes committed on the ground during that time. The three pronged analysis is focused on: representation of trauma as PTC (post-traumatic cinema), its modernist narration (Hirsch, 2004) and the “traumatic” structure of the film itself (1); cinematic transmission of trauma from the WW2 and the Holocaust to recent Serbian history after the same archetypal images and genre tropes (2); and continuation of trauma without closure ( i.e. acting-out or working through (Freud, 1911; Caruth, 1996; Friedlander, 1992; Felman, 1991)) through its reshaping as “cultural trauma” (Alexander, 2004; Kantsteiner, 2002) in cinema.
Nevena Daković, Ph.D. is a full professor of Film Theory/Film Studies (Dept. of Theory and History, FDA, University of Arts, Belgrade) and the Chair of Interdisciplinary Ph.D. Art and Media Studies (UoA). She is the author of more than ten books, most notably Film Studies: Essays in Film Texts of Memory (2014); Balkan kao (filmski) žanr: slika, tekst, nacija (2008) and editor of Graničnici sećanja: jevrejsko nasleđe i Holokaust, (2018); Media Archaeology (2016); Representation of the Holocaust in the Balkans in Arts and Media (2015). Nevena Daković publishes widely in national and international journals (UK, Turkey, Slovakia, Italy, Austria, France, USA); participates in conferences. She is a committee member of international project groups (COST and TEMPUS projects) and guest lecturer at many universities in Europe and USA (Paris, London, Vienna, Istanbul, Ohio, Wisconsin, New York...). She is a member of Academia Europaea. Her main research topics include: nation, representation, the Balkans, Shoah, and cultural memory.
“Jungian psychology and Stanley Kubrick”
by Luis Moris (IAAP, MP, Zurich)
Stanley Kubrick’s work dwells in the archetypal realm, confronting us with extreme characters, themes and images of our inner world. Kubrick was fascinated by the human mind and what lies beyond it. This lectures will explore aspects of Kubrick’s work from a Jungian perspective.
Luis Moris is a Jungian analyst and Swiss licensed psychotherapist with a practice in Zurich, where he lives. He is a graduate from the International School of Analytical Psychology, Zurich (ISAP, Zurich). He is currently doing a Ph.D. titled “Post-Mortal Phenomena, C. G. Jung and his Psychology”, at Essex University with Professor Roderick Main. He is the founder of Blue Salamandra Films (www.bluesalamandra.com), a film production house dedicated to creating films related to analytical psychology. He has produced and directed several films/interviews with prominent Jungian analysts.
"Projection and recollection on the couch and on the screen"
by dr. David Hewison (IAAP, SAP, London)
This presentation takes up two strands of exploration, loosely contrasted as projection and recollection. “Projection” refers to the ways in which patients in analysis have made use of films and the scenes and stories within them to give shape to their feelings about themselves and to their psychological process of change, in ways that amplified the analytic work. This strand touches on films such as Elephant (1989 - UK), Once Were Warriors (1994 – NZ); and ET (1982 – USA) to show how unrepresentable experiences are able to be known about at a distance, prior to being able to be worked-on and worked-through. This strand looks at the importance of film from the position of the analytic consulting room, and addresses issues of clinical technique and understanding.
“Recollection”, on the other hand, takes as its central focus Pedro Almodóvar’s 2019 film Pain & Glory (SP) and explores the ways in which the viewer is taken, via a succession of images and memories of childhood into the nature of film-making itself and into the work of psychological recovery. Here, the audience is put into the role of the analyst, attending to a process that unfolds in front of us on the screen and which makes us question what it is that we are involved in. Both projection and recollection are part of the Individuation process and I hope to show how important film is as a way of furthering the development of the Self.
David Hewison is a Training Analyst of the Society of Analytical Psychology, and a Consultant Couple Psychoanalytic Psychotherapist and Head of Research & Ethics at Tavistock Relationships in London, UK. He has a longstanding interest in links between Jungian and Psychoanalytic thinking and in the origins and importance of creativity. He teaches internationally and has published widely on issues relating to individual and couple analysis, creativity, film, and clinical research. In his spare time he tries to develop his skills in Japanese woodblock printing.
"Editing - Inner Eye of the Cinema"
by Dragan Dimčić A.M.
FDA, University of Arts in Belgrade, Serbia
In the book "Expanded Cinema" (Gene Youngblood, 1970) Gene Youngblood writes that cinema and television became the nervous system of mankind but, contrary to commercial cinema and television, which confirm borders of the known, authors of experimental and alternative films try to expand those borders during those years. Youngblood defines the term expanded cinema: "Expanded Cinema isn't a movie at all: like life it's a process of becoming, man's ongoing historical drive to manifest his consciousness outside of his mind..." Manifesting the invisible, transcendent, turning towards the inner worlds, that was the task of the filmmakers who didn't see moving pictures primarily as a technology which replicates reality.
Contrary to the entertainment industry which, through plot, story and characters, perpetuates the habit of unconscious responses to formulas and encourages the same reactions in life, experiments with form and narrative came to question these formulas, expanding our perceptive possibilities and opening new potentials for contacts with the inner world.
In a lectorial approach, through examples from films and video works from the sixties up to the present, we will see how selected filmmakers push spectators out of the position of passive consumers and turn them into active seekers on the path to the self-knowledge. With specific emphasis on film editing because the meaning of a picture is not expressed only through visible information, signs and symbols inside a shot but also through the way of connecting these shots. We will also see how, through manipulation of space and time, relations between the subjective and the objective and visualizing of abstract concepts, moving pictures became pictures that move. Key words: film editing, experimental film, consciousness, transcendence
Dragan Dimčić is Magister of Multimedia Art and associate professor at the Faculty of Dramatic Arts in Belgrade, Serbia. Autor of the multimedia installation "Morpheus movie theater for the single man" (2008), supervising editor on the feature film "Presumption of Innocence" (2018). Director of rockumentary "Ah, Ahilej: Live@REX" (2018). Author of the book "Between the Worlds", essays about Nicolas Roeg, David Cronenberg, Terrence Malick, David Lynch and Alejandro Jodorowsky (DKSG, 2018). Author of texts about Found Footage films (Alternative film-video, 2010) and Mockumentary films (Zbornik FDU 25-26, 2014). Translator of the book "Selected Takes: Film Editors on Editing", Vincent LoBrutto, Praeger 1991 (FDU 2014).
"Beauty, ugliness and the sublime: the role of aesthetics in psychological development"
by Martin Schmidt (IAAP, SAP, London)
This lecture is based on the article ‘Beauty, ugliness and the sublime’ (published in the Journal of Analytical Psychology, Feb 2019) which was presented as a plenary paper at the conference ‘Enlightenment and Individuation: East and West’ in Xian, China in 2018.
The theory of aesthetic development (Piaget 1951, Baldwin 1975, Parsons 1980, Housen 1992, Harris Williams 2010) proposes that artistic appreciation is linked to human psychological development. The paper looks at how the apperception of beauty acts as an indicator and facilitator of psychological growth in the clinical encounter. This is illustrated by a clinical case study. Through empirical research, support is given to the argument (Bollas 1978, Meltzer 1988) that our early experience of the feminine/maternal plays a central role in developing an aesthetic capacity. The experience of the sublime is examined and portrayed as a means by which aesthetic development may be reignited and narcissistic isolation shattered.
Martin Schmidt, MBPsS, is the Liaison for the International Association for Analytical Psychology (IAAP) to Serbia. He is a Training Analyst of the Society of Analytical Psychology in the UK and has a private practice in London. He has worked as a psychologist and psychotherapist in psychiatric rehabilitation for over 20 years with patients suffering from psychosis, narcissistic and borderline personality disorders. From 2016-2019, he served as the Honorary Secretary of the IAAP and its Regional Organizer for Central Europe. He teaches and supervises widely both in the UK and abroad. His paper ‘Psychic Skin: psychotic defences, borderline process and delusions’ (JAP, Feb 2012, Vol 57, no 1) won the Fordham prize for best clinical paper in 2012 and was nominated for the Gradiva award by the National Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis in New York in 2013.